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Biography

JOAQUÍN TORRES-GARCÍA [1874-1949, Uruguay]

JULIO ALPUY [1919, Uruguay - 2009, USA]

JOSÉ GURVICH [1927, Lithuania -1974, USA]

GONZALO FONSECA [1922, Uruguay - 1997, Italy]

 

The Uruguayan painter, muralist, sculptor, teacher, writer, and theoretician, Joaquín Torres-García was born in Montevideo to a Catalan father and a Uruguayan mother. When he was seventeen years old, his family returned to the father’s homeland in Catalonia, Spain. Torres-García would not return to Montevideo for another forty-three years, living in Spain, France, the United States, and Italy.

In Barcelona, he studied at the Academy La Llotja and at the Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc. In 1903, he worked at Antoni Gaudí's studio. Commissioned to decorate a large hall for Barcelona's Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya, he traveled to Italy in 1912 to study fresco. By 1916, he had completed four large fresco murals. He contributed essays to magazines and newspapers, and his first book, Notes sobre art, was published in 1913. In 1917, Torres-García began to design manipulable, didactic wood toys for children, which he continued to do until the 1930s in Paris.

In 1920, Torres-García left Barcelona for good. He settled in New York, and after two years, he returned to Europe; first, he lived in Tuscany, and then, in 1926, he moved to Paris. It was there that he met the French artist Jean Hélion who introduced him to the artists of the avant-garde. He became friends with Jacques Lipchitz, Theo van Doesburg, Alexander Calder, Piet Mondrian, Le Corbusier, Luis Fernandez, and Amédée Ozenfant. He also renewed his friendship with the sculptor Julio González. With Michel Seuphor, Torres-García founded the group and journal, Cercle et Carré (Circle and Square) in 1930. At the end of 1932, due to the economic effects of the stock market crash, he moved to Madrid.

After eighteen months in the Spanish capital, he returned to Uruguay. In Montevideo, he first founded the “Asociación de Arte Constructivo” (AAC) (“The Association of Constructivist Art”) with a group of Uruguayan artists. In the first issue of Círculo y Cuadrado, a magazine inspired by Cercle et Carré which the group renewed, the seminal drawing of the Inverted Map of South America was published. Torres-García’s statement was: “Nuestro norte es el sur” (“Our North is the South").

FRANCISCO MATTO [1911-1995, Uruguay]

AUGUSTO TORRES [1913-1992, Spain]

HORACIO TORRES [1924, Italy - 1976, USA]

 

In 1943, he founded the “Taller Torres-García” (TTG), where he imparted his teachings to the next generation of artists. He died in Montevideo in August of 1949. In Torres-García's Constructive Universal compositions, he aimed to express a total worldview, forging a unique style which united elements of European modernism with those of ancient cultures, particularly of the Americas. It appeals equally to reason, to the senses, and to the spirit.

Torres-García's works are included in numerous public and private collections such as the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, USA; Art Museum of the Americas, Washington, DC, USA; Banco de la República, Bogota, Colombia; Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA; Georgia Museum of Art, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA;Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain; Kunst Museum Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; LaM - Lille Métropole Musée d’art moderne, d’art contemporain et d’art brut, Villeneuve d’Ascq, France; Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), Los Angeles, California, USA; Le Musée d’Art moderne et contemporain de Strasbourg (MAMCS), Strasbourg, France; Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Madrid, Spain; Museo de Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires (MALBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Museo de Bellas Artes Juan Manuel Blanes, Montevideo, Uruguay; Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (MNCARS), Madrid, Spain;Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales (MNAV), Montevideo, Uruguay;Museo Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico; Museo Torres García, Montevideo, Uruguay; Museu Coleção Berardo - Centro Cultural Belém, Lisbon, Portugal; Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona (MACBA), Barcelona, Spain; Museu de Arte de São Paulo (MASP), Brazil; Museu de Arte Moderna Rio de Janeiro (MAM Rio), Brazil; The Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD Museum), Providence, Rhode Island, USA; The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), Texas, USA; Museum of Latin American Art (MoLAA), Long Beach, California, USA; Pérez Art Museum Miami (PAMM), Florida, USA; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania, USA; San Antonio Museum of Art (SAMA), Texas, USA; and San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA), San Francisco, California, USA.

Selected Exhibitions

2023
Taller Torres-García – a unified aesthetic: Constructive Universalism from painting & sculpture to objects of everyday life, Sicardi | Ayers | Bacino, Houston, TX, USA

2022
Konkrete Global! Museum im Kulturspeicher Würzburg, Germany
Introducing MACA, Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Atchugarry (MACA), Manantiales, Punta del Este, Uruguay
Tercer ojo, Colección Costantini en Malba, Habitar la ciudad, Museo de Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires (MALBA), Argentina
Joaquín Torres-García: Toys, Ortuzar Projects, New York, NY, USA
Torres-García: el arte del juguete, Galería Guillermo de Osma, Madrid, Spain

2020
Constructed Dialogues: Selections from the Latin American Collection in the inaugural installation of the Nancy and Rich Kinder Building, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), TX, USA

2019
Sur Moderno: Journeys of Abstraction, The Patricia Phelps de Cisneros Gift, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, NY, USA
Torres-García: Un universo vanguardista, Galería Sur, Punta del Este, Uruguay
Joaquín Torres-García. Obra Viva, Centro Cultural La Moneda, Santiago, Chile

2018
The Worlds of Joaquín Torres-García, Acquavella Galleries, Inc., New York City, NY, USA
Vanguardia Y Arte Internacional IV, Galería Leandro Navarro, Madrid, Spain
Unlocking the Grid, Bookstein Projects, New York, NY, USA

2017
Colección Telefónica Cubismo(s) y experiencias de la Modernidad, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain
Junto al aura de Picasso, Fundacion Picasso, Museo Casa Natal, Málaga, Spain

2016
Joaquín Torres-García: un moderno en la Arcadia, Museo Picasso, Málaga, Spain
Torres-García y el objeto – Arte y Diseño, Galería Guillermo de Osma, Madrid, Spain
Joaquín Torres-García: un moderno en la Arcadia, Fundación Telefónica, Madrid, Spain

2015
Joaquín Torres-García: The Arcadian Modern, (MoMA), New York, NY, USA
Joaquín Torres-García, Sala Dalmau, Barcelona, Spain
Joaquín Torres-García 1874-1949, Museo de Bellas de Murcia, Spain
Joaquín Torres-García: Maderas, dibujos y juguetes, Galería Leandro Navarro, Madrid, Spain
Torres-García: el niño aprende jugando, Museo Torres-García, Biblioteca Mário de Andrade, São Paulo, Brazil
Joaquín Torres-García, Gary Nader Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Looking South, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX, USA

2013
Joaquín Torres-Garcia i Barcelona: 1891-1919, Palau Antiguitats, Barcelona, Spain

2012
Joaquín Torres-García. Obra mural inédita 1914-1918, Amics de les Arts i Joventuts Musicals, Terrassa, Spain

2011
Torres García: Geometría, creación, proporción, Fundación Iberé Camargo, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Torres-García. Dibujos inéditos, Oriol Galería d’Art, Barcelona, Spain
Torres-García a les seves cruïlles, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Torres-García: Utopía y Tradición, Museo de la Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Torres-García at his Crossroads, Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain

2010
Trazos de New York, Museo Torres García, Montevideo, Uruguay; Caixa de Río de Janeiro, Brazil
Torres-García: Dispot temporal per un any de la Collecció Alejandra, Aurelio i Claudio Torres al MNAC, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

2009
Joaquín Torres-García: Constructing Abstraction with Wood, The Menil Collection, Houston, TX, USA
J. Torres García 1874-1949 Anys de Galeria, Sala Dalmau, Barcelona, Spain
Joaquín Torres-García: Paintings in Houston Collections, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), TX, USA

2008
Darrere la màscara constructiva, Centre Cultural de Caixa Girona-Fontana D'Or, Girona, Spain
A Intuição e a Estrutura/ La Intuición y la Estructura: De Torres-García a Viera da Silva 1929-1949, Fundação de Arte Moderna e Contemporânea, Coleção Berardo, Lisbon, Spain
Joaquín Torres-García: De Paris a Montevideo, Galería Leandro Navarro, Madrid, Spain

2007
Joaquín Torres-García: Una Vida en Papel, Museu Valencia de la Illustracio i de la Modernitat-MuVIM, Valencia, Spain; Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Madrid, Spain
Joaquín Torres-García: Painting & Drawings, 1920-1942, CDS Gallery, New York, NY, USA

2006
Torres-Garcia: Selected Works, Jan Krugier Gallery, New York , NY, USA
Torres-García: 30 pinturas de 1919 a 1949: New York-Paris-Madrid-Montevideo, Oriol Galería d’Art, Barcelona, Spain

2005
Universalismo Constructivo, Museo Torres García, Montevideo, Uruguay; Fundación Antonio Saura, Cuenca, Spain; Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Instituto Tomie Othakie, San Pablo, Brazil; Museo Oscar Niemeyer, Curitiba, Brazil; Centro Cultural Borges, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Caixa de Girona, Museo de Mataró, Spain
ALADDIN. Juguetes transformables, Museo Torres García, Montevideo, Uruguay; Fundación Bank Boston, Santiago, Chile; Museu Oscar Niemeyer, Curitiba, Brazil; Museo de Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires (MALBA), Argentina; Museu Picasso, Barcelona, Spain

2002
Musée de Strasbourg, France Fundación ICO, Madrid, Spain

1997
IVAM Centre Julio González, Valencia, Spain
La Pedrera, Barcelona, Spain
Fundación BANCAJA, Madrid, Spain
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

1996
Fundaçao Arpad Szenés-Vieira da Silva, Lisbon Museo Pontevedra, Spain

1994
XXII São Paulo International Bienal, Sala Torres-García, Brazil

1991
Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid IVAM Centre Julio González, Valencia, Spain

1985
Hayward Gallery, Barbican Centre, London, UK
Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain
Stadtische Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf, Germany
Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH), Houston, TX, USA
Miami Center for the Arts, Tallahassee, FL, USA

1981
Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City, Mexico

1980
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

1978
Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (exhibition destroyed in a fire)

1975
Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France  

1973
Museu d'Art Modern, Barcelona, Spain
Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo, Madrid, Spain

1971
Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA

1970
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY, USA
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI, USA

1961
Pan American Union, Washington, D.C, USA
San Francisco Museum of Art, CA, USA
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Städtische Kunsthalle, Baden-Baden, Germany

1960
Rose Fried Gallery, New York, NY, USA

1959
V Bienal de São Paulo: Sala Torres-García, São Paulo, Brazil

1956
XXVIII Biennale de Venezia: Sala Torres-García, Palazzo Centrale, Venice, Italy

1955
Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris, France

1950
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Galerias Laietaines, Barcelona, Spain

1933
Museo de Arte Moderno, Madrid, Spain

1929
Galerie Jeanne Boucher, Paris, France
Galerie Percier, Paris, France
Galerie Jean Charpentier, Paris, France

1928
Galerie Zack, Paris, France

1927
Galerie Carmine, Paris, France

1926
Galerie G. A. Fabre, Paris, France

1922
Gallery Hanfstaengel, New York, NY, USA

1912
Galeries Dalmau, Barcelona, Spain

1900
Sálo de "La Vanguardia," Barcelona, Spain

Selected Public Collections

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY, USA

Art Museum of the Americas (AMA), Washington, D.C., USA

Banco de Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain

Banco República, Uruguay

Berardo Museum, Lisbon, Portugal

Biblioteca Central de Barcelona, Spain

Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, TX, USA

CIFO, Cisneros Fontanals Art Foundation, Miami, FL, USA

Colby Museum of Art, Waterville, ME, USA

Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain

Colección de Arte Banco de la República, Colombia

Colección Telefónica, Madrid, Spain

Col·lecció Fundació Antiga Caixa Terrassa, Spain

Fundación Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain

Dallas Museum of Art, TX, USA

Daros Latinamerica Collection, Zürich, Switzerland

Frelinghuysen Morris House & Studio, Lenox, MA, USA

Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian/Centro de Arte Moderno, Lisbon, Portugal

Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain

Fundación Cultural de la Caixa de Terrassa, Spain

Fundación Francisco Godia, Barcelona, Spain

Fundación MAPFRE, Madrid, Spain

Fundación Telefónica, Madrid, Spain

Gary Nader Art Centre, Miami, FL, USA

Georgia Museum of Art, Athens, GA, USA

Grey Art Gallery, New York University, NY, USA

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA

Institut Valencià d’Art Modern (IVAM), Valencia, Spain

Instituto de crédito oficial (ICO), Madrid, Spain

Katoennatie HeadquARTers, Antwerp, Belgium

Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switzerland

LaM - Lille Métropole musée d'art moderne, d'art contemporain et d'art brut, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France

Liceo No. 1 Manuel Rose, Las Piedras, Uruguay

Lille Métropole Musée d’art (LAM) contemporain et d’art brut, Villenueve d’Ascq, France

Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), Los Angeles, CA, USA

Musée d’Art Moderne, Saint-Etienne, France

Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France

Musée d'Art Moderne et Contemporain (MAMCS), Strasbourg, France

Musée de Grenoble, France

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, France

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes, France

Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

Museo Botero, Bogotá, Colombia

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Atchugarry (MACA), Punta del Este, Uruguay

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Madrid, Spain

Museo de Arte del Banco de la República, Bogotá, Colombia

Museo de Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires (MALBA), Argentina

Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao, Spain

Museo de Bellas Artes de Caracas, Venezuela

Museo de Bellas Artes Juan Manuel Blanes, Montevideo, Uruguay

Museo de la Solidaridad Salvador Allende, Santiago, Chile

Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain

Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales (MNAV), Montevideo, Uruguay

Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes (MNBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Museo Patio Herreriano, Valladolid, Spain

Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes “Rosa Galisteo de Rodríguez”, Santa Fe, NM, USA

Museo Rufino Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico

Museo Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico

Museo Torres García, Montevideo, Uruguay

Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona (MACBA), Spain

Museu de Arte de São Paulo Assis Chateaubriand (MASP), Brazil

Museu de Arte Moderna Rio de Janeiro (MAM), Brazil

Museu de Terrassa, Spain

Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain

Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), TX, USA

Museum of Latin American Art (MOLAA), Long Beach, CA, USA

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., USA

Newark Museum, NJ, USA

Palau de la Generalitat, Barcelona, Spain

Parque Rodó, Montevideo, Uruguay

Patricia Phelps de Cisneros Collection, New York, NY, USA

Pérez Art Museum Miami (PAMM), FL, USA

Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA, USA

Sala Pares, Barcelona, Spain

Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL, USA

San Antonio Museum of Art, TX, USA

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA), CA, USA

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, CA, USA

Sociedad Argentina de Escritores, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY, USA

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Israel

The Art Institute of Chicago, IL, USA

The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (MoMA), New York, NY, USA

The RISD Museum, University of Rhode Island, Providence, RI, USA

Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy

University of Iowa Museum of Art, Iowa City, IA, USA

Winterthur Kunstmuseum, Switzerland

Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT, USA