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Biography

JESUS RAFAEL SOTO
[1923, Venezuela - 2005, France]

One of the most important kinetic artists of the 20th century, Jesús Rafael Soto began his artistic career at a very young age, painting posters for movie theaters in his hometown of Ciudad Bolívar. In 1942, he received a scholarship to study art and art history at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Artes Aplicadas de Caracas, where he met fellow students Carlos Cruz-Diez, Mercedes Pardo, Omar Carreño, and Alejandro Otero. During these studies, he began making paintings inflected with Cubism. In Caracas, he regularly attended meetings and discussions at the Taller Libre de Artes, in which intellectuals, critics, and artists debated current avant-garde ideas from Europe and Latin America; his first solo exhibition was held at the Taller in 1949. In 1947, Soto was invited to direct theEscuela de Bellas Artes de Maracaibo, where he remained until 1950. That year, he received a grant to travel to France; he settled in Paris, where he found a dynamic community of artists associated with the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles and the Galerie Denise René, including Yaacov Agam, Jean Tinguely, and Victor Vasarely. He also rejoined many of his friends from school, including Otero and Pardo. Surrounded by these artists, Soto began to consider ways to move his work from two-dimensions to three, how to engage the viewer in the experience of the work, and how to incorporate the perception of movement into his art.

Influenced by serialism in modern music, Soto embarked upon his “serial works” in 1952. In an interview conducted by Hans Ulrich Obrist in 2006, Soto recalled the importance of music to his early production. His interest in music was also as a musician; for more than a decade, Soto earned his living by playing guitar at bars.

Soto was also influenced by the work of artists Piet Mondrian and Kazimir Malevich, especially in their treatment of geometry and abstraction. Wassily Kandinsky’s text Concerning the Spiritual in Art (1912) was an important resource for the young artist as he began making works which suggested movement and instability. In 1947, when László Moholy-Nagy’s book Vision in Motion was published, Soto found another resource to support his ideas about movement and the spectator. By the 1960s, he was immersed in projects in which he used almost no color but instead explored the vibrations created by line and its dematerialization through the inclusion of hanging elements. He also began exploring the idea of haptic art: making works to be touched by the viewer.

 

The most widely known example of this phase of his work is the Penetrables, interactive metal and plastic structures through which the viewer moves; Soto created his first Penetrable in 1967. In an interview of 1970, Soto said, “With penetrables, my most recent creations, this participation becomes tactile, even often auditory. Man interacts with his surroundings. Matter, time and space form a true trinity, and movement is the force which demonstrates the trinity.”

Soto’s works have been shown in many important solo exhibitions, including Soto dans le collection du Musée, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France (2013); Peintures Cinétiques de Soto, Galerie Aujourd’hui, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium (1957); Soto. The Fourth Dimension, Guggenheim Bilbao, Spain (2019); Jesús Rafael Soto, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (2000); Soto, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France (1969); Soto – une Rétrospective, Musée Soulages, Rodez, France (2015); Soto – Cuarenta Años de Creación, Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Caracas (MACC), Venezuela (1983); Jesús Rafael Soto, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Argentina (1998); Visión en Movimiento, Museo Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico (2005); Soto: Houston Penetrable, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), Texas, USA (2014); and Soto: A Retrospective Exhibition, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, New York, USA (1974).

Soto’s works are represented in several major collections including Fundación ARCO, Madrid, Spain; Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Hara Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, Japan; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington DC, USA; Kröller-Müller Museum (KMM), Otterlo, The Netherlands; Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), California, USA; Musée National d’Art Moderne - Centre Pompidou, Paris, France; Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium; Museo de Arte Moderno Jesús Soto, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela; Museo Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico; The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), Texas, USA; Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York City, New York, USA; National Gallery of Victoria (NCV), Melbourne, Australia; National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Korea (MMCA), Seoul, South Korea; Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase College, State University of New York, Purchase, New York, USA; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, New York, USA; Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, The Netherlands; and Tate Modern, London, England, UK.

Selected Solo Exhibitions

2022
Soto: Prints and multiples, Marlborough Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Invisible: a tale of ethereal lines, León Tovar Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Materia y vibración, Galerie Perrotin, New York, NY, USA

2020
Jesús-Rafael Soto: Perception: Works from 1964-1992, Sicardi | Ayers | Bacino, Houston, TX, USA
Axis of Horizon, National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Seoul, South Korea

2019
Soto: La Cuarta Dimensión, The Guggenheim Bilbao, Bilbao, Spain
Soto: Vibrations, 1950-1960, Hauser & Wirth, New York, NY, USA
Carrément SOTO, Galerie Denise René Espace Marais, Paris, France

2018
Pénétrable BBL Bleu, Espace Louis Vuitton, Tokyo, Japan
Soto Múltiple, Galería Cayón, Madrid, Spain
Soto, Galería Odalys, Madrid, Spain

2017
Dans Son Jus, Jesús Rafael Soto, Leon Tovar Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Pénétrable de Lyon, Université Catholique de Lyon, France
Jesús Rafael Soto: Sound Mural, Cecilia Brunson Projects, London, UK
Jesús Rafael Soto: Sound Mural, Cecilia Brunson Projects, Santiago, Chile

2016
Virtual Soto, Galería Cayón, Madrid, Spain

2015
Jesús Rafael Soto: Une Rétrospective, Musée Soulages, Rodez, France
Soto: Chronochrome, Galerie Perrotin, New York, NY, USA
Soto: Estática Dinámico, Galería de Arte Ascaso, Caracas, Venezuela

2014
Jesús Rafael Soto: Houston Penetrable, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), TX, USA
Jesús Rafael Soto: Pénétrable de Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, IL, USA

2013
Soto dans le collection du Museé national d’art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
Soto, Galerie Denise René rive gauche, Paris, France

2012
Soto Unearthed – A 1968 Film and Selected Early Works, Gallery Bosi Contemporary, New York, NY, USA
Color sobre color, Galería Arte Ascaso, Caracas, Venezuela
Soto: negro sobre blanco, blanco sobre negro, Galería Cayón, Madrid, Spain
Pénétrable BBL Bleu, Musée de l’Hospice Saint-Roch
Issodun, France
Soto: Paris and Beyond, 1950-1970, Grey Art Gallery, New York, NY, USA

2011
Soto, Haunch of Venison Gallery, New York, NY, USA

2010
Soto: Les harmonies combinatoires, Galerie Denise René Espace Marais & Rive gauche, Paris, France

2009
Jesús Rafael Soto, Galerie Max Hetlzer, Berlin, Germany

2008
Soto, Galería Elvira González, Madrid, Spain
Jesús Rafael Soto, Leon Tovar Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Jesús Rafael Soto, Robert Sandelson and Contemporary International Art, London, UK
Jesús Rafael Soto, Galería Artespacio, Vitacura, Chile

2006
Soto Virtual, Arte Contacto, Caracas, Venezuela
Virtualidad Vibrante, PDVSA Centro de Arte La Estancia, Caracas, Venezuela
Jesús Rafael Soto, Pablo Goebel Fine Arts, Mexico City, Mexico
Visión en Movimiento, Fundación PROA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Visione en Movimiento, Galleria d’Arte Moderna é Contemporaneo, Bergamo, Italy
Soto, Theo Estudio Mignoni, Madrid, Spain

2005
Visión en Movimiento, Museo Tamayo Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City, Mexico
Soto – A Construção da Imaterialidade, Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil, Brasilia, Brazil; Museo Oscar Niemeyer, Curitiba, Brazil; Instituto Tomie Ohtake, São Paulo, Brazil
Jesús Rafael Soto – Homenaje al maestro del arte cinético, Galería Artespacio, Santiago, Chile
La Universalidad de lo Inmaterial, Museum of Latin American Art (MoLAA), Long Beach, USA
Jesús Soto 1923-2005, Fundación Galería de Arte Nacional (GAN), Caracas, Venezuela
The Shape of Color, Riva Yares Gallery, Scottsdale, AZ, USA

2004
Soto, Galería Dimaca, Caracas, Venezuela
Jesús Soto, Galería Joan Guaita, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Soto – la couleur en suspens, Galerie Denise René Rive Gauche, Paris, France
Jesús Rafael Soto, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX, USA

2003
Soto – A Gran Escala, Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Caracas, Venezuela
Soto – A Gran Escala, Centro Cultural Metropolitano, Quito, Ecuador
Soto – Le mouvement dans l’art, Galerie Denise René, Paris, France

2002
Jesús Soto, Joan Guaita Art, Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain
Jesús Soto, Dan Galería, São Paulo, Brazil
Jesús Soto en Maracaibo, Centro de Arte de Maracaibo Lía Bermúdez, Venezuela
Galería de Arte Ascaso, Caracas, Venezuela

2001
Jesús Rafael Soto – Exposición, Museo de Arte Moderno de Bogotá, Colombia
Jesús Rafael Soto – Schilderigen – Peintures, Fondation Veranneman Kruishoutem, Belgium
Lettre du Venezuela, Galerie Denise René, Paris, France
Jesús Rafael Soto – Vibrations and Squares, Riva Yares Gallery, Scottsdale, AZ, USA

2000
Jesús Rafael Soto, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Taiwan
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo (MARCO), Monterrey, Mexico
Jesús Rafael Soto – Bilder und Skulpturen 1959-2000, Allianz Versicherungs-AG, Berlin, Germany
Soto Clásico y Moderno, Fundación Corp Group Centro Cultural, Caracas, Venezuela
FIAC (Foire Internationale d’Art Contemporain), Galerie Denise René, Paris, France

1999
Jesús Rafael Soto, Banque Bruxelles Lambert, Brussels, Belgium
Jesús Rafael Soto, Galerie Schoeller, Düsseldorf, Germany
Soto, la poética de la energía, Sala de Arte Telefónica, Santiago, Chile
Soto – Energía y Movimiento, Galería de arte La Previsora, Caracas, Venezuela
Die poesie der energie, Galerie am Lindenplatz AG, Vaduz, Liechtenstein
Soto – Dosmil, Galería de Arte Ascaso, Valencia, Venezuela
Exhibition at Durban Segnini Gallery, Caracas, Venezuela

1998
Soto, Museu de Arte Moderna da Bahia, Salvador (Bahia), Brazil
Jesús Soto – Universe of change, Riva Yares Gallery, Scottsdale, AZ, USA
Soto, Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales, Montevideo, Uruguay
Homenaje al Maestro Jesús Soto, Espacio Cultural PDV, Caracas, Venezuela
Jesús Soto, Centro Cultural del Conde Duque, Madrid, Spain
Jesús Soto – Universe of Change, Riva Yares Gallery, Santa Fe, NM, USA
Jesús Rafael Soto, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Soto, Casa Andrade Muricy, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Soto virtual, Durban Segnini Gallery, Coral Gables, FL, USA

1997
Jesús Rafael Soto, Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris, France
Jesús Rafael Soto – Retrospektive, Stiftung für Konkrete Kunst, Reutlingen, Germany
Soto, Museu de Arte Contempôranea da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Soto, Galerie Denise René, Paris, France
Jesús RafaelHyundai Gallery, Seoul, South Korea
ART 28'97, Galerie Denise René, Basel, Switzerland
Galería Durban, Caracas, Venezuela
J.R. Soto,Fairmate Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan
J.G.M. Galerie, FIAC, Paris, France
Soto, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan

1995
Durban-Segnini Gallery, ART MIAMI '95, Miami, FL, USA
Galería Exedra, Quito, Equador
Galería Durban, FIA, Caracas, Venezuela
Espacio Soto, Galería Durban, Caracas, Venzuela
Hyundai Gallery, Seoul, South Korea

1994
Elisabeth Franck Gallery, Knokke-le-Zoute, Belgium
Casa de la Cultura Juan Félix Sánchez, Mérida; Ateneo Jesús Soto, Tovar, Venezuela
Festival International de Biarritz, France
Gallery Seomi, Seoul, South Korea
In Khan Gallery, New York, NY, USA

1993
Altamira Fine Art, ART ASIA, Hong Kong
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Maracay Mario Abreu, Maracay, Venezuela
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Pau, France
Fundação de Serralves, Porto, Portugal
Museo de Arte Moderno - Fundación Jesús Soto, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela

1992
Galería Theo, ARCO, Madrid, Spain
Abbaye Saint-André, Centre d'Art Contemporain, Meymac; Le Carré/Musée Bonnat, Bayonne
Altamira Fine Art, Caracas, Venezuela
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

1991
Gallery 44, Kaarst, Germany
Gallery 44, FIAC, Paris, France
Humphrey Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Galleria Arte 92, Milan, Italy
Galería Quintero, Barranquilla, Colombia

1990
Galería Theo, Madrid, Spain
Theoespacio, Madrid, Spain
Estudio Theo, Madrid, Spain
Galerie Sapone, Nice, France
Galleria Eva Menzio, Turin, Italy
Museum of Modern Art, Kamakura, Japan
Museum of Modern Art, Saitama, JapaN
Iwaki City Art Museum, Iwaki, Japan
Itami City Museum of Art, Itami, Japan
Galería Theo, Barcelona, Spain
Galleria Art Valley 88, Forte dei Marmi, Italy
Josef Albers Museum, Quadrat, Bottrop, Germany

1989
Galerie Hermanns, Munich, Germany
Museo de Arte, Coro, Venezuela

1988
Ateneo, Boconó, Venezuela
Elisabeth Franck Gallery, Knokke-le-Zoute, Belgium
Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Hyundai Gallery, Seoul, South Korea

1987
Galerie Gilbert Brownstone, Paris, France

1986
Contemporary Sculpture Center, Tokyo, Japan
Contemporary Sculpture Center, Osaka, Japan
Expressions Art Gallery, Miami, FL, USA

1985
Galería Garcés Velásquez, Bogotá, Colombia
Achenbach Art Consulting, Dusseldorf, Germany
Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, FL, USA
Hokin Gallery, Miami, FL, USA

1984
Charles Cowles Gallery, New York, NY, USA

1983
Casa de la Cultura, La Victoria, Venezuela
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Caracas, Venezuela
Centro de Bellas Artes, Maracaibo, Venezuela
Sala Luzán, Saragossa, Spain

1982
Palacio de Velázquez, Madrid, Spain
Caja de Ahorros Provincial, Alicante, Spain
Fundación Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain
Colegio de Arquitectos, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Galería Theo & Sala Celini, Madrid, Spain
Galería Quintero, Barranquilla, Colombia
Ateneo, Zea, Venezuela

1981
Galería de Arte Rolando Oliver Rugeles, Mérida, Venezuela
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Francisco Narváez, Porlamar, Venezuela
Galería Témpora, Bogotá, Colombia
Casa de Colón, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

1980
Galerie Denise René, Paris, France
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Caracas, Sala Ipostel, Caracas, Venezuela
Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela
Galerie Ferm, Malmö, Sweden

1979
Helsinki Kaupungin Taidekokoelmat, Helsinki, Finland
Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

1978
Louisiana Museum, Humlebaek, Denmark
Liljevalchs Konsthall, Stockholm, Sweden

1977
Galerie Bonnier, Geneva, Switzerland
Centre International de Création Artistique, Sénanque, France
Galería El Parque, Valencia, Venezuela
Galería Arte Contacto, Caracas, Venezuela
Bibliothèque Municipale, Cannes, France
Galerie Valeur, Nagoya, Japan

1976
Galerie Watari, Tokyo, Japan

1975
Galería Arte Contacto, Caracas, Venezuela

1974
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY, USA
Musée Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., USA
Galerie Denise René, New York, NY, USA

1973
Estudio Dos, Valencia, Venezuela
Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela
Galleria Corsini, Intra (Lac Majeur), Italy
Galleria Godel, Rome, Italy
Galería Arte Contacto, Caracas, Venezuela

1972
Estudio Actual, Caracas, Venezuela
Galerie Beyeler, Basel, Switzerland
Galerie Alice Pauli, Lausanne, Switzerland
Galleria Levi, Milan, Italy
Formes et Muraux, Lyon, France
Marlborough Godard, Toronto, Canada
Museo de Arte Moderno, Bogotá, Colombia

1971
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL, USA
Akron Art Center, Akron, OH, USA
Galerie Denise René/Hans Mayer, Dusseldorf, Germany
Galleria Rotta, Milan, Italy
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela
Kunstverein, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Ariete Graphica, Milan, Italy
Galería de Arte, INCIBA, Palacio de las Industrias, Caracas, Venezuela
Museo de Arte Moderno, Bogotá, Colombia

1970
Galleria de la Nova Loggia, Bologne, Italy
Galerie Godard Lefort, Montréal, Canada
Kunstverein, Mannheim, Germany
Pfalzgalerie des Bezirksverbandes, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Ulmer Museum, Ulm, Germany
Galerie Semiha Huber, Zürich, Switzerland
Galerie Denise René, Paris, France
Galerija Suvremene Umjetnosti, Zagreb, Yugoslavia
Galerie Buchholz, Munich, Germany

1969
Galleria Notizie, Turin, Italy
Galleria del Naviglio, Milan, Italy
Galleria Flori, Florence, Italy
Galleria Giraldi, Livourne, Italy
Estudio Actual, Caracas, Venezuela
Svensk-Franska Konstgalleriet, Stockholm, Sweden
Galerie Bonnier, Geneva, Switzerland
Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Théâtre du Huitième, Lyon, France

1968
Galerie Françoise Mayer, Brussels, Belgium
Kunsthalle, Berne, Switzerland
Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hanover, Germany
Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen, Dusseldorf, Germany
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium
Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France
Marlborough Galleria d'Arte, Rome, Italy
Galleria Lorenzelli, Bergamo, Italy

1967
Galerie Denise René, Paris, France
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

1966
Galerie Schmela, Dusseldorf, Germany
Pfalzgalerie des Bezirksverbandes, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Galleria del Naviglio, Milan, Italy
Galleria del Deposito, Genoa, Italy
Kootz Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Galleria del Cavallino, Venice, Italy
Centro Arte Viva-Feltrinelli, Trieste, Italy

1965
Kootz Gallery, New York, NY, USA
Galerie Edouard Loeb, Paris, France
Signals Gallery, London, UK

1964
Galerie Müller, Stuttgart, Germany
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

1963
Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, Germany

1962
Galerie Ad Libitum, Anvers, Belgium
Galerie Edouard Loeb, Paris, France

1961
Galerie Rudolf Zwirner, Essen, Germany
Galerie Brusberg, Hanover, Germany
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

1959
Galerie Iris Clert, Paris, France
Galleri Vallingatan, Stockholm, Sweden

1957
Galerie Aujourd'hui, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

1956
Galerie Denise René, Paris, France

1949
Taller Libre de Arte, Caracas, Venezuela

Selected Public Collections

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY, USA

Auckland City Art Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand

Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, TX, USA

Casa de las Américas, Havana, Cuba

Fondazione Calderara, Vacciago di Ameno, Italy

Fondazione Il Giardino di Daniel Spoerri, Seggiano (Grosseto), Italy

Fondazione Lucio Fontana, Milan, Italy

Fonds Départemental d'Art Contemporain, Val-de-Marne, France

Fukuoka Art Museum, Japan

Fundación ARCO, Madrid, Spain

Fundación César Manrique, Teguise, Lanzarote (Iles Canaries), Spain

Fundación Galería de Arte Nacional, Caracas, Venezuela

Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Turin, Italy

Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Roma, Italy

Hara Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, Japan

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., USA

Ho-Am Art Museum, Seoul, South Korea

The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel

Itami City Art Museum, Itami, Japan

The Iwaki City Museum, Iwaki, Japan

Josef Albers Museum, Quadrat, Bottrop, Germany

Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld, Germany

Kunstmuseum, Bern, Switzerland

Le Musée Martiniquais des Arts des Amériques – M2A2, Le Lamentin, France

Louisiana, Humlebaek, Denmark

Malmö Konstmuseum, Malmö, Sweden

Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden

Mondriaanhuis, Amersfoort, The Netherlands

Muezul de Arta Universala Burcuresti, Bucarest, Romania

Musée d'Art Contemporain de Montréal, Canada

Musée d'Art Contemporain, Lyon, France

Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France

Musée de Sculpture en Plein Air, Middelheim, Belgium

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes, France

Musée des Beaux-Arts, Pau, France

Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Caracas Sofía Imber, Caracas, Venezuela

Museo de Arte Latino Americano Contemporáneo de Managua, Nicaragua

Museo de Arte Moderno - Fundación Jesús Soto, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela

Museo de Arte Moderno de Mérida Juan Astorga Anta, Mérida, Venezuela

Museo de Arte Moderno La Tertulia, Cali, Colombia

Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

Museo de La Asegurada, Alicante, Spain

Museo de la Solidaridad Salvador Allende, Santiago, Chile

Museo Luis González Robles, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain

Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain

Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Museo Rufino Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico

Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Museum für Gegenwartskunst, Basel, Switzerland

Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany

Museum Morsbroich, Leverkusen, Germany

Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki, Finland

The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), Houston, TX, USA

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, NY, USA

Museum of Modern Art, Hokkaido, Japan

Museum of Modern Art, Saitama, Japan

Museum of Modern Art, Wakayama, Japan

Museum Wurth, Kunzelsau, Germany

National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, Australia

National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia

National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul, South Korea

Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase, New York, NY, USA

Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, FL, USA

Oklahoma City Art Museum, Oklahoma City, OK, USA

Peter Stuyvesant Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Reflex Miniature Museum of Contemporary Art, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo, The Netherlands

Sammlung Lenz Schönberg, Munich, Germany

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY, USA

Sprengel Museum Hannover, Hanovre, Germany

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Germany

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Tate Gallery, London, UK

Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Tel Aviv, Israel

Tongyoung Nammang Open Air Sculpture Park, Tongyoung City, South Korea

Ulmer Museum, Ulm, Germany

Universal Graphic Museum, Giza, Egypt